Parquet Filter Pushdown

Jan 10, 2019

Drill 1.9 introduces the Parquet filter pushdown option. Parquet filter pushdown is a performance optimization that prunes extraneous data from a Parquet file to reduce the amount of data that Drill scans and reads when a query on a Parquet file contains a filter expression. Pruning data reduces the I/O, CPU, and network overhead to optimize Drill’s performance.

Parquet filter pushdown is enabled by default. When a query contains a filter expression, you can run the EXPLAIN PLAN command to see if Drill applies Parquet filter pushdown to the query. You can enable and disable this feature through the planner.store.parquet.rowgroup.filter.pushdown option, as shown:

SET `planner.store.parquet.rowgroup.filter.pushdown`='false'   

Starting in Drill 1.13, the query planner in Drill can apply project push down, filter push down, and partition pruning to star queries in common table expressions (CTEs), views, and subqueries, for example:

   select col1 from (select * from t)  

When a CTE, view, or subquery contains a star filter condition, the query planner in Drill can apply the filter and prune extraneous data, further reducing the amount of data that the scanner reads and improving performance.

Note: Currently, Drill only supports pushdown for simple star subselect queries without filters. See DRILL-6219 for more information.

How Parquet Filter Pushdown Works

Drill applies Parquet filter pushdown during the query planning phase. The query planner in Drill performs Parquet filter pushdown by evaluating the filter expressions in the query. If no filter expression exists, the underlying scan operator reads all of the data in a Parquet file and then sends the data to operators downstream. When filter expressions exist, the planner applies each filter and prunes the data, reducing the amount of data that the scanner and Parquet reader must read.

Parquet filter pushdown is similar to partition pruning in that it reduces the amount of data that Drill must read during runtime. Parquet filter pushdown relies on the minimum and maximum value statistics in the row group metadata of the Parquet file to filter and prune data at the row group level. Drill can use any column in a filter expression as long the column in the Parquet file contains statistics. Whereas, partition pruning requires data to be partitioned on a column. A partition is created for each unique value in the column. Partition pruning can only prune data when the filter uses the partitioned column.

The query planner looks at the minimum and maximum values in each row group for an intersection. If no intersection exists, the planner can prune the row group in the table. If the minimum and maximum value range is too large, Drill does not apply Parquet filter pushdown. The query planner can typically prune more data when the tables in the Parquet file are sorted by row groups.

Parquet Filter Pushdown for VARCHAR and DECIMAL Data Types

Starting in Drill 1.15, Drill supports Parquet filter pushdown for the VARCHAR and DECIMAL data types. Drill uses binary statistics in the Parquet file or Drill metadata file to push filters on VARCHAR and DECIMAL data types down to the data source.

Parquet Generated Files

By default, Parquet filter pushdown works for VARCHAR and DECIMAL data types if the Parquet files were created with Parquet version 1.10.0 or later. Drill 1.13 and later uses Parquet 1.10.0 to write and read back Parquet files.

If Parquet files were created with a pre-1.10.0 version of Parquet, and the data in the binary columns is in ASCII format (not UTC-8), enable the store.parquet.reader.strings_signed_min_max option, which allows Drill to use binary statistics in older Parquet files.

Note: DECIMAL filter pushdown only works for Parquet files created by Parquet 1.10.0 or later due to issue PARQUET-1322.

Parquet Files Created by Hive

In Hive 2.3, Parquet files are created by a pre-1.10.0 version of Parquet. If the data in the binary columns is in ASCII format, you can enable the store.parquet.reader.strings_signed_min_max option to enable pushdown support for VARCHAR data types. DECIMAL filter pushdown is not supported.

Drill Generated Metadata Files

Parquet filter pushdown for DECIMAL and VARCHAR data types may not work correctly on Drill metadata files that were generated prior to Drill 1.15. Regenerate all Drill metadata files using Drill 1.15 or later to ensure that Parquet filter pushdown on VARCHAR and DECIMAL data types works correctly on Drill generated metadata files.

If the store.parquet.reader.strings_signed_min_max option is not enabled during regeneration, the minimum and maximum values for the binary data will not be written. When the binary data is in ASCII format, enabling the store.parquet.reader.strings_signed_min_max option during regeneration ensures that the minimum and maximum values are written and thus read back and used during filter pushdown.

Enabling Statistics Use for Pre-1.10.0 Parquet Files

If Parquet files were created with a pre-1.10.0 version of Parquet, and the data in binary columns is in ASCII format (not UTF-8), you can enable Drill to use the statistics for Parquet filter pushdown on VARCHAR and DECIMAL data types.

You can use either of the following methods to enable this functionality in Drill:

  • In the parquet format plugin configuration, add the enableStringsSignedMinMax option, and set the option to true, as shown:

    "parquet" : {
           type: "parquet",
           enableStringsSignedMinMax: true
        }  
    

    This configuration applies to all Parquet files in the parquet format plugin to which this storage plugin points, including the configured workspaces.

  • From the command line, enable the store.parquet.reader.strings_signed_min_max option at the session or system level, as shown:

    SET `store.parquet.reader.strings_signed_min_max`='true';
    ALTER SYSTEM SET `store.parquet.reader.strings_signed_min_max`='true';  
    

    Note:

    • The store.parquet.reader.strings_signed_min_max option allows three values: 'true', 'false', ''(empty string). By default, the value is an empty string.
    • Setting this option at the system level applies to all Parquet files in the system. Alternatively, you can set this option in the Drill Web UI. Options in the Drill Web UI are set at the system level.
    • When set at the session level, the setting takes precedence over the setting in the parquet format plugin and overrides the system level setting.

Using Parquet Filter Pushdown

Currently, Parquet filter pushdown only supports filters that reference columns from a single table (local filters). Parquet filter pushdown requires the minimum and maximum values in the Parquet file metadata. All Parquet files created in Drill using the CTAS statement contain the necessary metadata. If your Parquet files were created using another tool, you may need to use Drill to read and rewrite the files using the CTAS command.

Parquet filter pushdown works best if you presort the data. You do not have to sort the entire data set at once. You can sort a subset of the data set, sort another subset, and so on.

Configuring Parquet Filter Pushdown

Use the ALTER SYSTEM or SET command with the Parquet filter pushdown options to enable or disable the related features.

The following table lists the Parquet filter pushdown options with their descriptions and default values:

Option Description Default
planner.store.parquet.rowgroup.filter.pushdown Turns the Parquet filter pushdown feature on or off. TRUE
planner.store.parquet.rowgroup.filter.pushdown.threshold Sets the number of row groups that a table can have. You can increase the threshold if the filter can prune many row groups. However, if this setting is too high, the filter evaluation overhead increases. Base this setting on the data set. Reduce this setting if the planning time is significant, or you do not see any benefit at runtime. 10,000
store.parquet.reader.strings_signed_min_max Allows binary statistics usage for Parquet files created with a pre-1.10.0 version of Parquet. Files created pre-1.10.0 have incorrectly calculated statistics for UTF-8 data. If you know that data in the binary columns is in ASCII (not UTF-8), setting this option to 'true' enables statistics usage for VARCHAR and DECIMAL data types. Default is unset; empty string. Allowed values are 'true', 'false', '' (empty string). ''(empty string)

Example

Starting in Drill 1.14, Drill supports the planner rule, JoinPushTransitivePredicatesRule, which enables Drill to infer filter conditions for join queries and push the filter conditions down to the data source.

This example shows a query plan where the JoinPushTransitivePredicatesRule is used to push the filter down to each table referenced in the following query:

   SELECT * FROM dfs.`/tmp/first` t1 JOIN dfs.`/tmp/second` t2  ON t1.`month` = t2.`month` WHERE t2.`month` = 4  

This query performs a join on two tables partitioned by the “month” column. The “first” table has 16 Parquet files, and the “second” table has 7. Issuing the EXPLAIN PLAN FOR command, you can see that the query planner applies the filter to both tables, significantly reducing the number of files read by the Scan operator in each table.

   EXPLAIN PLAN FOR SELECT * FROM dfs.`/tmp/first` t1 JOIN dfs.`/tmp/second` t2  ON t1.`month` = t2.`month` WHERE t2.`month` = 4  

   DrillProjectRel(**=[$0], **0=[$2])
     DrillJoinRel(condition=[=($1, $3)], joinType=[inner])
       DrillScanRel(table=[[dfs, first]], groupscan=[ParquetGroupScan [entries=[ReadEntryWithPath [path=/tmp/first/0_0_9.parquet], ReadEntryWithPath [path=/tmp/first/0_0_10.parquet]], selectionRoot=file:/tmp/first, numFiles=2, numRowGroups=2, usedMetadataFile=false, columns=[`**`]]])
       DrillScanRel(table=[[dfs, second]], groupscan=[ParquetGroupScan [entries=[ReadEntryWithPath [path=/tmp/second/0_0_5.parquet]], selectionRoot=file:/tmp/second, numFiles=1, numRowGroups=1, usedMetadataFile=false, columns=[`**`]]])

See Query Plans for more information.

Support

The following table lists the supported and unsupported clauses, operators, data types, function, and scenarios for Parquet filter pushdown:

Note: 1 indicates support as of Drill 1.13. 2 indicates support as of Drill 1.14. 3 indicates support as of Drill 1.15.

Supported Not Supported
Clauses WHERE, 1WITH, HAVING (HAVING is supported if Drill can pass the filter through GROUP BY.) -
Operators 2BETWEEN, 2ITEM, AND, OR, NOT, 1IS [NOT] NULL, 1IS [NOT] TRUE, 1IS [NOT] FALSE, IN (An IN list is converted to OR if the number in the IN list is within a certain threshold, for example 20. If greater than the threshold, pruning cannot occur.) -
Comparison Operators <>, <, >, <=, >=, = -
Data Types INT, BIGINT, FLOAT, DOUBLE, DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIME, 1BOOLEAN (true, false), 3VARCHAR,CHAR (treated as VARCHAR), and DECIMAL columns Hive TIMESTAMP
Function CAST is supported among the following types only: int, bigint, float, double, 1date, 1timestamp, and 1time -
Other 2Enabled native Hive reader, Files with multiple row groups, 2Joins -

Note: Drill cannot infer filter conditions for join queries that have:

  • a dynamic star in the sub-query or queries that include the WITH statement.
  • several filter predicates with the OR logical operator.
  • more than one EXISTS operator (instead of JOIN operators).
  • INNER JOIN and local filtering with a several conditions.